What is Schutzhund?
Schutzhund is a German word meaning "Protection Dog". It refers to a sport that focuses on developing and evaluating those traits in dogs that make them more useful and happier companions to their owners and everyone that comes in contact with them. While dogs of other breeds are also admitted to Schutzhund trials, this breed evaluation test was developed specifically for the German Shepherd dog. Schutzhund is intended to demonstrate the dog's intelligence and utility.
As a working trial, Schutzhund measures the dog's mental stability, endurance, structural efficiencies, ability to scent, willingness to work, courage and trainability.
Schutzhund work concentrates on three parts which are similar to those for dogs in Law Enforcement:
This working dog sport offers an opportunity for dog owners to train their dog and compete with each other for recognition of both the handler's ability to train and the dog's ability to perform as required. It is a sport enjoyed by persons of varied professions, who join together in a camaraderie born of their common interest in working with their dogs. People of all ages races and conditions of life, even those with significant disabilities enjoy Schutzhund as a sport. Often, it is a family sport and is passed on from generation to generation.
The Three Parts of a Schutzhund Trial
The tracking phase includes a temperament test by the overseeing judge to assure the dog's mental soundness. When approached closely on a loose leash, the dog should not act shyly or aggressively. The track is laid earlier by a person walking normally on a natural surface such as dirt or grass. The track includes a number of turns and a number of small, man-made objects (known as Articles) left by this person on the track itself. At the end of a 30-foot leash, the handler follows the dog, which is expected to scent the track and indicate the location of the objects, usually by lying down with it between its front paws (The indicating of the articles may be done Standing, Sitting, Lying Down, or be alternating these positions. The dog may also indicate be picking up the article). The tracking phase is intended to test the dog's trainability and ability to scent, as well as its mental and physical endurance.
The obedience phase includes a series of heeling exercises, some of which are closely in and around a group of people. During the heeling, there is a gun shot test to assure that the dog does not openly react to such sharp noises. There is also a series of field exercises in which the dog is commanded to sit, lie down, and stand while the handler continues to move. From these various positions, the dog is recalled to the handler. With dumbbells of various weights, the dog is required to retrieve on a flat surface, over a one-meter hurdle, and over a six-foot slanted wall. The dog is also asked to run in a straight direction from its handler on command and lie down on a second command. Finally, each dog is expected to stay in a lying down position away from its handler, despite distractions, at the other end of the obedience field, while another dog completes the above exercises. All of the obedience exercises are tests of the dog's temperament, structural efficiencies, and, very importantly, its willingness to serve man or woman.
The protection phase tests the dog's courage, physical strength and agility. The handler's control of the dog is absolutely essential. The exercises include a search of hiding places, finding a hidden person (acting as a human decoy), and guarding that decoy while the handler approaches. The dog is expected to pursue the decoy when an escape is attempted and to hold the grip firmly. The decoy is searched and transported to the judge with the handler and dog walking behind and later at the decoy's right side. When the decoy attempts to attack the handler, the dog is expected to stop the attack with a firm grip and no hesitation.
The final test of courage occurs when the decoy is asked to come out of a hiding place by the dog's handler from the opposite end of the trial field. The dog is sent as the decoy runs toward the dog and handler. The decoy runs directly at the dog, threatening the dog with a stick. All bites during the protection phase are expected to be firmly place on the padded sleeve and stopped on command and/or when the decoy discontinues the fight. The protection tests are intended to assure that the dog is neither a coward nor a criminal menace.
Schutzhund Around the World
The first Schutzhund trial was held in Germany in 1901 to emphasize the correct working temperament and ability in the German Shepherd breed. Originally, these dogs were herding dogs, but the industrialization of Germany encouraged breeders to promote the use of their dogs as police and military dogs. The Verein für Deutsche Schäferhunde (SV), the parent club, became concerned that this would lead to careless breeding and undesirable traits such as mental instability, so it developed the Schutzhund test.
Since then, many other countries and working dog organizations have also adopted Schutzhund as a sport and a test of working performance in dogs. International rules have been established, and they are administered by the Verein für Deutsche Schäferhunde (VDH).
In 1970 the first Schutzhund trial in the U.S. was held in California. Each year, the United Schutzhund Clubs of America (USA) alone sanctions hundreds of trials with thousands of dog/handler teams. More than 20 countries send teams of competitors to the World Championship for Schutzhund dogs from the World Union of German Shepherd Clubs (WUSV). In 1998, The WUSV Championship will be held in Boston, Massachusetts. This will be the first time the World Championship will be held outside of Europe.
There are three levels of the Schutzhund Test:
For Schutzhund I the dog must be at least 18 months old and pass and initial temperament test by the judge. The dog must heel on the leash and off, demonstrate the walking sit, the walking down, and the stay tests, as well as the send-out. It must retrieve on the flat and over a hurdle. In tracking, it must be able to follow a track laid by its handler at least 20 minutes earlier. There are also protection tests.
For Schutzhund II the dog must be at least 19 months old and must already have earned its Schutzhund I degree. It must again pass all of the tracking, obedience and protection tests required for Schutzhund I, but those tests, for Schutzhund II, are made more difficult and require greater endurance, agility, and above all, control. There is an additional retrieve required over the six foot slanted wall. In tracking, the Schutzhund II candidate must be able to follow a track laid by a stranger at least 30 minutes earlier.
For Schutzhund III, the master's degree, the dog must be at least 20 months old and must have earned both the Schutzhund I and II titles. Again, the tests now are made far more difficult. All exercises in obedience and protection are demonstrated off leash. There is the addition of a walking and running stand. In tracking, the dog must follow a track that was laid by a stranger at least 60 minutes earlier. The track has four turns, compared with two turns for Schutzhund I and II, and there are three objects, rather than two, that must be found by the dog. The picture of obedience, strength, eagerness and confidence presented by an excellent Schutzhund III team is a beautiful illustration of the partnership of human and dog.
In addition to the Schutzhund temperament tests, the United Schutzhund Clubs of America offer other examinations: the B, a basic obedience and temperament test which is required before entry for the Schutzhund I is permitted; the FH and FH2, advanced tracking degrees; the Schutzhund A, which tests obedience and protection at the Schutzhund I level; and the WH, a basic protection degree which includes basic obedience.
The Value to the German Shepherd Dog Breed
Any registered German Shepherd that has a Schutzhund degree has demonstrated sufficient ability as a working dog to qualify for breed evaluation. The breed evaluation is a very detailed examination of the dog's structure, temperament and pedigree and requires both a certification of good hip joints and sufficient performance on an endurance test (the AD). Dogs that do well in the breed evaluation receive a Koerklasse I or Koerklasse II. This is a recommendation and evaluation by a trained and recognized expert judge as to the worthiness of the dog for breeding. Dogs rated Koerklasse II are "suitable for breeding" and dogs rated Koerklasse I are "recommended for breeding". By thus screening dogs in order to select the suitable specimens for breeding, Schutzhund helps to maintain the quality of the breed at a very high level. Thus, there is a very high level of assurance that puppies born to Schutzhund dams and sired by Schutzhund dogs are more likely to be of reliable temperament, high intelligence, steady nerves, extreme endurance, great strength and sound structure.
What Is the Judge Looking for in the Dog?
At all three stages - Schutzhund I, II and III - each of the three phases: tracking, obedience and protection, is worth 100 points, for a total of 300 points. If a dog does not receive a minimum of 70% of the points in tracking and obedience and 80% of the points in protection - or if the dog fails the pretrial temperament test - it is not awarded a degree that day and must repeat the entire test, passing all phases of the test at a later trial. In every event, the judge is looking for an eager, concentrating, and accurate working dog. High ratings and scores are given to the animal that displays a strong willingness and ability to work for its human handler.
The Schutzhund-Trained Dog in the Home
Since Schutzhund is the demonstration of the German Shepherd Dog's most desirable characteristics, dogs well trained in Schutzhund are usually excellent companions in the home. The German Shepherd Dog - like any other working dog that possesses mental stability - has trust and confidence in itself, allowing it to be at peace with its surroundings.
In addition to sound structural efficiencies for long, arduous work, the standard for German Shepherd Dog calls for mental stability and a willingness to work. The dog should be approachable, quietly standing its ground, showing confidence and a willingness to meet overtures without itself necessarily making them. It should be generally calm, but eager and alert when the situation warrants. It should be fearless, but also good with children.
The German Shepherd Dog should not be timid or react nervously to unusual sounds or sights. A dog that is overly aggressive because of its overall fears of people and events can be extremely dangerous. The Schutzhund sport is designed to identify and eliminate such dogs from breeding stock. Because Schutzhund training gives the owner a great deal of control over the dog, the owner is able to let the dog have more fun. Not only is Schutzhund training itself enjoyable for the dog, but also the Schutzhund-trained dog knows how to please its owners, creating a stronger bond between dog and owners.
Do Dogs Enjoy Schutzhund Training?
If trained in the right manner, dogs enjoy working, as anyone who attends a Schutzhund competition can see. The joy of the dogs in working with their handlers is evident.
For thousands of years, dogs have adapted to serve humans in a mutually beneficial relationship. While dogs could move quickly, hunt prey and protect flocks and their owner. The humans could provide food, shelter from the most severe elements and protection from larger predators, besides tending to the dog's injuries. A dog's reason for being is to serve humans.
Schutzhund training helps develop the dog's natural instincts to a high level. Self-confident dogs, doing work for which they are well trained, are happy dogs. Wagging tails, sounds of excitement, and strong pulling on a leash all show an observer at a Schutzhund trial how much fulfillment dogs find in this work.
Breeders and the importance of Schutzhund Titles
As a working trial, Schutzhund measures the dog's mental stability, endurance, structural efficiencies, ability to scent, willingness to work, courage and trainability. A Schutzhund title is an accomplishment for the dog and the handler. With this test proving the abilities listed above, it should be used as a prerequisite to breeding as in Germany. Why buy a dog or puppy from untitled parents? Why have to take the word of the breeder, who’s interest is to sell you a puppy? Look what happened to the American Show Shepherds, no Schutzhund titles! Where does it start? It’s in the best interest of the German Shepherd Dog to maintain the standard of breeding titled dogs.